Many circumstances can generate a power-cut for electronic systems: e.g. an AC commercial outage, the failure or the change-out of a primary battery. Long storage and long shipping times between the final test of the system in the factory and the date of effective power on by the end user can also explain full discharge of the primary battery.
More and more payment cards do effectively embed new features like crypto-dynamic codes (thanks to a display at the back of the card), specific user interface (sound or LED blinking) or biometric authentication. Such smartcards aim at reducing significantly the bank back-office costs and the financial fraud while preserving privacy and security of personal data of the smartcard user.
The lifetime of a watch battery is generally between two and five years. It obviously depends upon the number of functions on board of the watch and the amount of energy required by each of them.
The healthcare industry is evolving very fast and the new emerging applications are diverse: some of them are very demanding in terms of power supply: form factor and thickness, safety, requirement for power, etc.
The future of physical retail shop relies on the digitization. As an example, the trend is in retail shops to use more and more electronic shelf labels to have the price of goods displayed and updated electronically.
Because of the new legislations, any car, bus or truck maker shall be soon compelled to embed Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) in 100% of the new vehicles to be put on the market. Main objective of such TPMS is obviously to alert the driver in case of abnormal pressure drop in one of the tires.
Autonomous sensors are already in use for a variety of applications like smart buildings, home automation, smart cities and wearables. They are often placed in remote locations These sensing applications include pressure, humidity, temperature, light, motion and chemical gas monitoring. Most of the time wireless connectivity is used to periodically transmit the collected data to a central processing unit and/or to the cloud.